By Ernest Furchtgott
I first met Ernest Furchtgott twenty-five years in the past after becoming a member of the school of the varsity of Social paintings on the college of South Carolina. at the moment, Ernie chaired the dep. of Psychology. within the following 3 years we collaborated with a tutorial Committee on Gerontology in conceptualizing and shaping the University's certificates of Graduate examine in Gerontology application, guiding it to ultimate approval by means of the South Carolina fee on better schooling. For two decades we group taught our graduate-level path, "Psychosocial ways to Geron tology," related to colleagues from comparable disciplines. through the years, we tested and together graded thousands of study posters ready via our graduate scholars in gerontology as their ultimate direction requirement. a number of years in the past, Ernie officially retired from the college. He in stantly agreed to my request that he proceed instructing the psychology of getting older element of our interdisciplinary path. On campus approximately on a daily basis seeing that retirement, Ernie usually telephoned to debate are cent article within the Gerontologist or a paper presentation that had ex mentioned him on the Gerontological Society's annual clinical assembly. He maintained a transparent presence within the educational community.
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Many of the age-related changes are attributed to altered responsiveness following adrenergic stimulation and/or changes in the peripheral vasculature (Lakatta, 1985). Also, there is a blunting of beta2-adrenergic mediated vasodilation and a preservation of alpha2-vasoconstriction. Older persons require a longer time for HR, BP, and ventilation to attain equilibrium at a given work rate, and conversely, the recovery following effort takes a much longer time (Shephard, 1987, p. 77). The slower recovery of HR after effort can be seen even after older persons perform a 12-item free-recall task.
Thus, activities induced by high levels of motivation are more likely to show differences between young and old. For many functions, the older organism requires more time to reach the optimum level of activity for a particular function, and it cannot reach the same maximum potential performance level that can be achieved by a young organism. CONCLUSIONS The preceding brief summary can be also applied to most other biological systems important for motivation. Aging effects are most pronounced when the person is active rather than at rest.
The earliest scientific attempts at rejuvenation by Brown-Sequard in 1889 involved the injection of older men with testicular extracts (cited by Andres & Tobin, 1977). In the human male, aging is associated with a fall in the serum level of free or bioavalable testosterone (bT) (Schiavi, Schreiner-Engle, White, & Mandeli, 1991; Vermeulen, 1991). , 1991), several others have reported changes even in this index (Vermeulen, 1991). There are large interindividual variabilities in both of these indices, and almost all of the data are based on cross-sectional studies.