By Ytasha L. Womack
Comprising parts of the avant-garde, technological know-how fiction, state of the art hip-hop, black comix, and photograph novels, Afrofuturism spans either underground and mainstream popular culture. With a twofold goal to entertain and enlighten, Afrofuturists try to collapse racial, ethnic, and all social obstacles to empower and loose members to be themselves. This publication introduces readers to the burgeoning artists growing Afrofuturist works, the historical past of innovators some time past, and the wide variety of matters they discover. From the sci-fi literature of Samuel Delany, Octavia Butler, and NK Jemisin to the musical cosmos of solar Ra, George Clinton, and the Black Eyed Peas' will.i.am, to the visible and multimedia artists encouraged through African Dogon myths and Egyptian deities, subject matters diversity from the "alien" event of blacks in the US to the "wake up" cry that peppers sci-fi literature, sermons, and activism. Interviews with rappers, composers, musicians, singers, authors, comedian illustrators, painters, and DJs, in addition to Afrofuturist professors, supply a firsthand examine this interesting stream.
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Extra resources for Afrofuturism: The World of Black Sci-Fi and Fantasy Culture
The individuals who compose a crowd exhibit different characteristics, depending upon whether they are acting alone or are united in the crowd. Those traits peculiar to individuals when they were united in a crowd were called “ crowd characteristics” by Le Bon. As Le Bon sees them, these crowd characteristics are: 1. Heightened emotional sensitivity, impetuosity and capri ciousness. The individual by himself can be subjected to the same stimuli as the man in a crowd, but the individual’s intellect makes him alert to the results of his actions, and he suppresses the dan gerous impulses.
Masse und Publikum presents the first synthesis of two con ceptions of the “ social” which have stimulated much of modern sociology: Durkheim’s (and Sumner’s) notion of the social as a body of normative constraints, and Simmel’s conception of the social in terms of forms of interaction. While Simmel considered norms to be of secondary interest, and Durkheim’s approach neglected the actual processes of interaction, Park achieved a bifocal awareness of these two dimensions of social organization.
One needs only the capacity to feel and empathize to be a member of a crowd. To belong to a public, one must not only feel but be able to think and to understand the thoughts of others. Though not subject to practical regulations, one must adhere to the norms of logic. Crowd and public are the only truly individualistic social forms. In the crowd we find anarchy in its purest form. In a public the individual stands only under the norms of logic, though the ultimate tyranny, as Max Stirner observed, is the tyranny of concepts.