By I. Prigogine

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22) becomes and a, the background scattering term, is given by a= nsc Ax,,& I. AMDUR AND J. B. JORDAN 42 The background scattering correction a is generally small and may be calculated with sufficient accuracy by using several approximations. The procedures and results of this calculation will be found below. Equation (24) must be further simplified, since the function i(r,x,q) is not known. It is possible to measure the intensity distribution of the beam only at the plane of the detector, and this quantity, i(r,O,q), can in general be only indirectly related to i(r,x,q).

Since it is extremely difficult to form a beam without some divergence, it is frequently necessary to take this into account. If the rays entering thc scattering volume are not parallel, their distribution in initial directions will affect the analysis through the calculation of 0,. Inclusion of beam divergence in a general analysis is difficult because the extent of the divergence and the degree to which the divergence affects the calculation of (O;’/’) both depend on the specific arrangement of the collimating holes.

In the case of short-range interactions between an atom and a molecule, the important forces probably act between the constituent atoms of the molecule and the free atom; in the case of two molecules, the forces between the constituent atoms are of primary importance. In neither case is it likely that the geometric center of the molecule acts as a point center of force. In principle, a proper analysis for elastic scattering in which molecules are involved should start with a solution of Eq. Since it has not yet been possible to solve the equations of motion for this multibody problem, alternative approximate procedures have been developed.

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