By Alan Cruse

This easy-to-use consultant illuminates key innovations and phrases in semantics and pragmatics and the research of which means because it is conveyed via language.

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2. Antipodals represent extreme points along a certain axis within some entity. g. of a novel or a concert), introduction: conclusion, black: white (on a continuous scale with shades of grey between the extremes). 3. Reversives involve movement or change (or cause of movement or change) in opposite directions between two states. g. in water level), advance: retreat, ascend: descend, arrive: depart, enter: leave, embark: disembark, mount: dismount, or they may involve non-spatial change, as in lighten: darken, heat (up): cool (down), improve: deteriorate.

2. This approach implies that categories have sharp boundaries, whereas natural categories typically have fuzzy boundaries. 24 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS 3. With this approach, everything that satisfies a definition has equal status in a category. This does not explain why, typically, some members of a category are felt to be more central and others more peripheral. For theories which attempt to deal with one or more of these objections, see prototype theory, exemplar theory, the ‘theory’ theory.

These features are individually necessary, in that every member of the category boy must be male, must be young, and must be human. The features are jointly sufficient, in that everything which possesses all three features qualifies as a boy. This approach to concepts has an intuitive appeal, but the major drawbacks are: 1. For many concepts – probably the majority – it is extremely difficult to come up with satisfactory definitions. 2. This approach implies that categories have sharp boundaries, whereas natural categories typically have fuzzy boundaries.

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