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She discusses examples like // Notre Dame is the heart of Paris, then the Seine is its main artery, to which we can add the "counterfactual" // Paris were a human being, Notre Dame would be its heart. It is apparent that the hypothetical construction (//"... then . ) that we find here is setting up cognitive mappings (in the protasis) and their natural extensions (in the apodosis). There is a fact of the matter as to whether and how the extensions follow from the core mapping (set up in the //"-clause), even though, here, there can be no truth conditions linked to implication in the logical sense traditionally associated with such constructions.

I am grateful to the participants who helped me with their comments, criticisms, and suggestions, in particular M. Borel, L. Tasmowski-De Ryck, M. Dominicy, M. Janta, P. Gochet, M. Goyssens, J. Dinsmore, F. Recanati, M. E. Ryder, and W. Van Langendonck, and also to others who commented on partial and/ or preliminary versions, in particular J. Bien, A. -Y. Kuroda, G. Lakoff, J. McCawley, and C. Travis. Fauconnier (1984) is the French version of this work. Introductory Note In a short autobiographical piece published in the New York Times Magazine, an author writes about his childhood:1 My first friend was Slobo.

Grammatical tenses and aspects, and their combinations, serve to indicate relative relations between spaces and crucially, to keep track of the discourse "position" of the participants—which space is in focus (a dynamic notion), which one serves as base and what shifts are taking place. This elegant view of the dynamics of discourse applies quite generally to a variety of phenomena, such as reported belief, epistemic distance, and of course time, the prototypical relation linked to grammatical tense.

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