By Gregory White
Examines how emerging monetary integration with Europe affects Tunisia and Morocco.
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Extra resources for A Comparative Political Economy of Tunisia and Morocco: On the Outside of Europe Looking in
At the same time, it must also be “embedded” in society—that is, possess close ties with societal actors—to be effective in ensuring cooperation. 44 This analysis locates the state at this junction and, therefore, focuses on the character of the state’s relationship with the external and internal dimensions. 45 Although the Janusfaced image is helpful as an initial metaphor, the state is much less purposive, unitary, and omniscient than a single-headed, two-faced godlike conception 18 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK conveys.
Chapter 2 A Political Economy of Tunisia and Morocco What does it mean when a middle-income country is called a “darling” of the World Bank? Or when it is termed a bon élève, or “good student,” of the European Union (EU)? These are phrases one hears for both Tunisia and Morocco. Uttered by European ofﬁcials, or by the European media, such phrases sound patronizing or condescending. Declared by Maghribi ofﬁcials, they ring as obsequious. In either instance, the rhetoric suggests that the character of a country’s political economy—the level of industrialization and rate of economic growth—is intrinsically tied to its external relationship with advanced-industrialized countries.
2 summarizes the generations of EUMaghrib agreements. International, external circumstances have provided the context in which Tunisia and Morocco have pursued development. Before proceeding, it is valuable, therefore, to turn to each country for a brief introductory overview. TUNISIA’S INFITAH In September 1969, Tunisian president Habib Bourguiba dismissed the prominent minister of the economy, Ahmed Ben Salah. 4 Ben Salah and state ofﬁcials justiﬁed the policies as socialist, and the policies included a celebrated effort to establish agricultural cooperatives, especially on land expropriated in 1964 from former French (and Italian) colonials.